By Mian Mohammad Sharif
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Additional resources for A history of Muslim philosophy: With short accounts of other disciplines and the modern renaissance in Muslim lands- Vol I
The former, representing Buddhism, faithfully believes in the relentless working of the law of karma and refuses to assign any place to God in the scheme of things. The individual has to win his liberation through his own efforts by treading the path of lightness as delineated by Buddha. The responsibility of achieving salvation falls squarely on the shoulders of the individual. Before Buddha breathed his last, he advised his followers to work out their salvation with diligence. Philosophically, the Hinayana Buddhism advocates pure phenomenalism, maintaining the non-existence of substances or individuals.
It is mentioned in the Rg- Veda, the Epics, and the Bhagavad-Gita. The main work on the system, the Brhaspati-Sutra (600 B. ), is lost and its teachings have to be reconstructed from criticism of it in other works. The Carvaka is a non- Vedic, materialistic, and anti-supernaturalistic doctrine which holds that only this world exists and there is nothing beyond. There is no future life. " 36 "The mass of men, in accordance with the Sastras of policy and enjoyment. are found to follow only the doctrine of Carvaka.
Besides substances which simply provide a framework for the whole universe there are padartha, or categories, seven in number, namely, guna, karma, vi4esa, samavaya, samanya, abhava, and dravya, which can be translated as quality, action, individuality, necessary relation, universals, negation, and substance. Qualities depend upon substances, but they can be independently conceived and so exist by their own nature. No distinction is recognized between mental and material qualities or between the primary and secondary qualities.