By Charles R. Krahmalkov
This quantity comprises the phonology, orthography, morphology, syntax, language and utilization of the Phoenician-Punic language. It includes examples from texts and dialects, together with fragments of a Punic drama, to convey to lifestyles the grammatical description of this language. the outline of the literary language holds that demanding and point reference of a given type of the verb is essentially a functionality of syntax, no longer morphology.
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Additional resources for A Phoenician-Punic Grammar (Handbuch Der Orientalistik)
945 liful liful < lip'ol ("to do"), et passim. The vowel is normally u in an open unstressed syllable: Pu Poen. 944, 948 duber dub'er < dober ("says"); Poen. 949 iussimyutsim (Y$'M "those who are coming out"); NPu. 19 uts e b iitseb < yoseb < hawsxb ("he erected"), et passim. Sometimes, however, the unstressed vowel appears as d, this pronunciation preserved by means of closing the syllable in which the vowel occurs: NPu Poen. 999 donni don(n)l <'adom ("sir"); cf. Punic Poen. 1141 done ddn(n)i ("mein Herr") but also Pu EH Gr.
For instance, Cypriote Phoenician orthography was distinct from that of Levantine Phoenician: the scribes of Cyprus occasionally used the phonetic" spelling for standard Phoenician Z i n writing the singular demonstrative pronouns ezde (masculine) and ezdo (feminine), employing the *aleph to indicate the presence in pronunciation of the 18 T H E A L P H A B E T , O R T H O G R A P H Y AND P H O N O L O G Y prothetic vowel. The Cypriote spelling was used at Marathus on the coast of Phoenicia and once in Punic, in the inscription from Pyrgoi in Etruria (ca.
Similarly, Pu Poen. 930, 940 m a c o m maqdm ("city"); Poen. 948 m u c o m muqom ("place, city," construct form) but also Pu Poen. 940P m a c u m maqum. T h e lowering of the vowel is very common: Pu Poen. 940 alonut 5allonut < 5alldndt ("goddesses"); Poen. mu < kamo ("like, as"); Poen. 2 bur bur < bor ("tomb"); AI2 p. 199 no. 2/3 s a n u t h sanut < sanot ("years"); Poen. 945 liful liful < lip'ol ("to do"), et passim. The vowel is normally u in an open unstressed syllable: Pu Poen. 944, 948 duber dub'er < dober ("says"); Poen.