By Walter Leuthold
This e-book has been written typically close by of untamed African ungulates, on the examine middle in Tsavo East nationwide Park, V oi, Kenya. whereas this had many beneficial properties, there have been additionally a number of drawbacks. the most this kind of is the truth that Voi isn't precisely on the hub of clinical job, no matter if we limit ourselves to African ungulates. therefore, while I had felt firstly that i used to be sufficiently accustomed to ethological paintings on those animals to write down an invaluable overview, it quickly grew to become woefully obtrusive that this assumption used to be faulty. during the last few years experiences on African ungulates have seasoned liferated and effects are being released in journals just about all over the area. My place in East Africa was once occasionally below excellent with recognize to entry to the newest literature, and that i depended to a substantial volume at the goodwill of affiliates in giving or lending me appropriate papers. i'm satisfied to document that I bought loads of help and cooperation during this admire. however, i could have over seemed a few vital papers inadvertently; their authors aren't suppose slighted via such omissions, which merely mirror availability of literature to me. Readers can also discover a substantial geographical bias in desire of East Africa, on the price of different African areas, really South Africa.
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Extra resources for African Ungulates: A Comparative Review of Their Ethology and Behavioral Ecology
Little is known about the okapi. Bovidae. Among the multitude of African bovids, particularly the smaller antelopes, we find the most varied auto grooming behavior. Most bovids ward off biting insects by foot-stamping, skin-twitching, and shaking the head or the entire body, the latter sometimes followed by a short run. They clean themselves or remove local irritations by licking, nibbling or biting (the latter mainly on legs and tail), and by scratching with the lower incisors (sides, rump, legs), with the horns (back and sides), and the hind feet (neck and head).
What generalizations can be made from the above review? There appear to be clear-cut relationships between an animal's body shape-and hence flexibility-and its comfort behavior; also between the latter and the external covering of the skin, i. , whether there are stiff bristles, soft fur, or no hair at all. To a large extent, these various characteristics are also tied to the animal's taxonomic position. Thus, most of the smaller bovids (e. , gazelles, the smaller Tragelaphini and Reduncinae) are of slender build, with relatively long and mobile necks and limbs and a furry coat.
He then starts several bouts of vigorous scraping, using both forefeet alternately (e. ), leaving clearly visible scratch marks. Between bouts of scraping, he sometimes turns about 180°. After several series of scraping, he urinates in a fairly low crouching posture, then crouches even lower (cf. Fig. 7) and defecates, again changing position occasionally. Then 34 he may leave without any further action, but the entire ceremony is a very drawn-out and elaborate behavioral sequence. In the end, the female's feces are buried under soil (through the male's scraping) and under the male's dung.