By Mary W. Helms
Ancient Panama provides intensity to our realizing of the political and spiritual elite ruling in Panama on the time of the eu conquest. Mary W. Helms's examine tremendously expands wisdom of the distribution, quantity, and structural nature of those pre-Columbian chiefdoms.
In addition, Helms delves extra deeply into pick out points of historical Panamanian political platforms, together with the connection among elite pageant and mainly prestige, using sumptuary items within the expression of elite strength, and the position of elites in local and long-distance alternate networks. In an important departure from conventional considering, she proposes that the quest for esoteric wisdom was once extra vital than financial exchange in constructing long-distance touch between chiefdoms.
The fundamental info for the learn are derived from sixteenth-century Spanish documents through Oviedo y Valdés, Andagoya, Balboa, and others. the writer additionally turns to ethnographic info from modern local humans of Panama, Colombia, tropical the USA, and Polynesia for analogy and comparability. the result's a hugely cutting edge research which illuminates not just pre-Columbian Panamanian elites but in addition the character of chiefdoms as a particular cultural type.
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Extra info for Ancient Panama: Chiefs in Search of Power
Meanwhile, Catalan ships challenged Genoa's hegemony in the western Mediterranean (Bisson 1991). The Castilian economy developed a commercial export sector based on the merino sheep mns of Extremadura. Complementing this pastoral enterprise were northern trading fairs at Burgos and Medina del Campo, also a fledgling textile industry in Andalusia. The mesta was organized by Alfonso X to regulate sheep ranching and the great pastoral migrations northward across Extremadura and Leon. Castilian agriculture was relegated to a secondary role in order to foster the livestock industry.
D. 565). In both eras, great imperial structures dominated the core areas of Eurasian civilizations. However, there were more Gunpowder Empires because of the expansion of Afro-Eurasian societies since the fall of the Classical Empires; Gunpowder Empires were avatars of their former classical predecessors. The Spanish Habsburg Monarchy under Charles V aspired to be and did, in fact, resemble the Holy Roman Empire of Charlemagne or the late Roman Imperium of Theodosius. The Catholic World Monarchy was, however, larger and more powerful than that of the earlier caesars.
Castilian cities generally preferred royal jurisdiction to that of the nobility or the church. They also strove to Spain in World History 35 acquire representation in the Castilian Cortes (parliament); that body was later reduced to rubber stamping royal decrees and raising taxes. Moreover, the great Spanish military orders lost their verve after the end of the Reconquista and became privileged landowning corporations. The knights of Santiago, Calatrava, Alcantara, and Montesa, bereft of their military mission, contributed to the violence of the late medieval period (O'Callaghan 1973).