Andean journeys: migration, ethnogenesis, and the state in by Karen Vieira Powers

By Karen Vieira Powers

This account of the local peoples of Ecuador within the 16th and 17th century exhibits how they not just resisted, tailored, and survived Spanish colonization yet reinvented themselves as a tradition. provided are either a revisionist remedy of the demographic background of Amerindian Ecuador and a clearer realizing of North Andean ethnogenesis. Powers's learn of Andean inhabitants hobbies within the Audiencia of Quito from 1535 to 1700 indicates that local migrations account for a inhabitants raise in Quito in the course of a time whilst contiguous parts skilled a fast decline in Indian inhabitants. past reconstructing the move of the local peoples, Powers additionally explores how migration replaced the lives of Indians and Spaniards. The migratory movement from local groups to Spanish towns, fabric turbines, and haciendas led to a continually mutating colonial international. For elite Spaniards, the migrations intended the close to cave in of the tribute and compelled hard work process, whereas nonelite Spaniards have been in a position to benefit from the choice exertions provided by means of the migrant Indians, leading to social mobility and the formation of recent periods. For Indians, the migrations have been firstly a survival procedure yet led to the decline of the conventional chiefdom. A key discovering of the learn is that Ecuadorean Indians completed cultural survival through reconstructing Andean lifeways contained in the websites to which they migrated.

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Marital Status in Repartimiento of Otavalo, 1645 178 31. Census Reporting in Town of Guaca, 1650 179 32. Gender Distribution in Town of Guaca, 1650 179 33. Age Structure in Town of Guaca, 1650 179 34. Marital Status in Town of Guaca, 1650 180 35. Census Reporting in Town of Calpi, 1663 181 36. Gender Distribution in Town of Calpi, 1663 181 37. Age Structure of Town of Calpi, 1663 181 38. Marital Status in Town of Calpi, 1663 181 39. Ayllu Names by Town, 1645-1698 182 Page xi Acknowledgments This book is the result of an odyssey that began as a childhood passion for the Spanish language in Yonkers, New York, and ended in the archives of the far reaches of the Ecuadorean highlands.

45, and 78-79. '' Cultura 24 (1986): 465-68 Note: Figures for the up to and including 1598 encompass the entire highlands of Ecuador (from Ibarra in the north to Cuenca in the south); figures from the 1660s onward exclude Cuenca. While waves of epidemics, natural disasters, and the decline of the textile industry induced the demographic crisis at the end of the seventeenth century, the unprecedented growth of the central and north-central sierra at the beginning of that century has not been adequately explained.

The Migration Phenomenon Quito's legacy of human movement continued unabated throughout the sixteenth century. What was already a critical demographic situation in 1534 was exacerbated by the Spanish invasion and the subsequent activities of the new regime. Andean population movements in the colonial period can be divided into two categories: Spanish-directed and Andean-directed migrations. Some examples of Spanish-directed, or forced, migration are: the conscription of native troops, the coerced relocation of encomienda Indians, and the incorporation of large numbers of Andeans into the mita, or forced-labor system.

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