Biochemistry of microbial degradation by Philip Morgan, Robert J. Watkinson (auth.), Colin Ratledge

By Philip Morgan, Robert J. Watkinson (auth.), Colin Ratledge (eds.)

Life in the world is determined by microbial task. The recycling of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, oxygen, phosphate and all of the different components that represent dwelling subject are constantly in flux: microorganisms perform key steps in those approaches and with out them lifestyles may stop inside of a number of brief years. The relatively fresh introduction of artificial chemical compounds has now challenged the surroundings: the place degradation doesn't take place, accumulation needs to perforce happen. unusually notwithstanding, even the main recalcitrant of molecules are steadily damaged down and intensely few fabrics are actually impervious to microbial assault. Microorganisms, via their quick progress premiums, have the main speedy turn-over in their DNA of all residing cells. hence they could evolve altered genes and for that reason produce novel enzymes for dealing with "foreign" compounds - the xenobiotics - in a fashion no longer obvious with such impact in different organisms. Evolution, with the creation of micro-organisms in a position to degrade molecules hitherto intractable to breakdown, is for that reason a continual occasion. Now, in the course of the organization of genetic manipulation, it's attainable to speed up this strategy of common evolution in a truly directed demeanour. The time-scale earlier than a brand new microorganism emerges which may make the most of a recalcitrant molecule has now been significantly shortened by means of the applying of well-understood genetic rules into microbiology. even if, earlier than those ideas will be effectively used, it truly is crucial that we comprehend the mechanism during which molecules are degraded, another way we will no longer understand the place top to direct those efforts.

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Biochemistry of microbial degradation

Lifestyles in the world will depend on microbial task. The recycling of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, oxygen, phosphate and all of the different parts that represent dwelling topic are constantly in flux: microorganisms perform key steps in those approaches and with no them lifestyles might stop inside of a couple of brief years.

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J. Gen. Microbiol. 99: 119-125 Strubel V, Rast HG, Pietz W, Knackmuss H-J and Engesser KH (1989) Enrichment of dibenzofuran utilizing bacteria with high co-metabolic potential towards dibenzodioxin and other anellated aromatics. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 58: 233-238 Sunairi M, Suzuki R, Takagi M and Yano K (1988) Self-cloning of genes for n-alkane assimilation from Candida maltosa. Agric. BioI. Chern. 52: 577-579 Takagi M, Ohkuma M, Kobayashi N, Watanabe M and Yano K (1989) Purification of cytochrome P-450alk from n-alkane-grown cells of Candida maltosa, and cloning and nucleotide sequencing of the encoded gene.

Rev. 63: 235-264 Hommel R and Ratledge C (1990) Evidence for two fatty alcohol oxidases in the biosurfactantproducing yeast Candida (Torulopsis) bombicola. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 70: 183-186 Jensen BK, Arvin E and Gundersen AT (1988) Biodegradation of nitrogen- and oxygencontaining aromatic compounds in groundwater from an oil-contaminated aquifer. J. Contam. Hydrol. 3: 65-75 Kanagawa T and Kelly DP (1987) Degradation of thiophenes by bacteria isolated from activated sludge. Microb. Ecol. 13: 47-57 Kappeli 0 and Finnerty WR (1979) Partition of alkane by an extracellular vesicle derived from hexadecane-grown Candida tropicalis.

Putida var. incognita. In addition cytochrome P450 hydroxylases have been authenticated from P. putida var. incognita (Suhara et al. 1985) and other organisms grown with pcymene, from organisms grown on n-alkanes and, most recently, from a cyclohexane-grown Xanthobacterium sp. (Warburton et al. 1990; Trickett et al. 1991). In contrast, although the involvement of hydroxylases, possibly cytochrome P450 systems, in the microbial degradation of a number of monoterpenes including car-3-ene, 1,8-cineole and limonene, has been predicted or inferred from substrate oxidation, accumulated intermediates and additional enzymology, their more general involvement in monoterpene metabolism has still to be substantiated.

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