Children Learning Second Languages by Annamaria Pinter (auth.)

By Annamaria Pinter (auth.)

This finished advisor to investigate and debate centres round language studying in formative years, the age issue and different contexts the place language studying occurs, together with domestic and college contexts. The scope is vast, taking pictures examples of reports with various age teams, diverse methodological ways and diversified languages.

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Berndt (1982) suggests that boys’ groups are competitive and grow out of team games that are increasingly more complex in their rule structure. Boys practise leadership 34 Children Learning Second Languages and other social roles through participating in these games, whereas girls emphasise intimacy and exclusivity in friendship. Bigelow and La Gaipa (1980) asked children to write essays about their idea and understanding of ‘friendships’. The researchers noted that three different stages of development emerged with regard to the changing nature of friendships during the primary school years.

At a basic level, a child’s experience with the physical world links directly into the development of concepts and vocabulary, serving as an ‘entry point’ for learning. (Cameron 2001: 79–80) Younger children’s knowledge is not represented in the same way as older children’s and adults’ knowledge. They have fewer features or dimensions with which to represent concepts. Older children tend to have more numerous, more varied and more abstract dimensions. Category boundaries of young children’s concepts are restricted and less well-defined.

Recognition of the importance of the quality of talk in classrooms has led to numerous approaches and techniques designed to enhance talk in interaction, such as ‘guided participation’ (Rogoff 1990) and ‘teacher-led instructional conversation’ (Tharp and Gallimore 1988). These techniques all imply that both the expert and the novice are active participants in the learning process: • Learning is seen as a shared responsibility between tutor and student. • Learners make unsolicited comments rather than just answer questions from tutors.

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