Comparative Political Transitions between Southeast Asia and by Teresita Cruz-del Rosario, James M. Dorsey

By Teresita Cruz-del Rosario, James M. Dorsey

This publication investigates the subject matter of worldwide transitions with a cross-regional comparative research of 2 parts experiencing swap over the last 3 a long time: Southeast Asia and the center East and North Africa (MENA). Political transitions in Asia were the topic of curiosity in educational and policy-making groups lately as there are encouraging symptoms of democratization in international locations that convey parts of authoritarianism. In these nations with fairly open political structures, transitions to democracy were entire – albeit messy, wrong, and hugely contested. against this, international locations of the MENA area which were gripped via revolts lately locate themselves in the course of chaotic and uncontrollable transitions. Why are there such alterations among those areas? What, if something, should be realized and utilized from the transitions in Southeast Asia? those questions are responded the following as Asia’s event is contrasted with the Arab revolts and the fight of the several nations within the MENA quarter to style a brand new social agreement among states and electorate.

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The undermining of social mobilization is further sharpened by the competition for scarce resources, especially among urban poor communities. In Cairo, where new, more heterogeneous communities sprung, different ethnic groups competed with the older and more established communities for limited public goods and services. 57 THE LIMITS AND VARIETIES OF CIVIL SOCIETY ACTIVISM Caution needs to be exercised in making claims about the relationship between civil society and democracy. As Aspinall notes, the real contribution of civil society in Indonesia was in “undermining of the ideological foundations of the authoritarian political order” rather than through direct and overt civil society activism.

Shiites and Sunnis Unite Against Corruption in Iraq,” The Observer, 11 August 2015. com/en/20150811-iraq-shiitesunni-protest-corruption-government (accessed 16 November 2015). 23. Ibid. 24. “Zamalek Fans Remain in Tunisia as Club Chief Demands Their Arrest,” Egypt Independent, 25 August 2015. egyptindependent. com/news/zamalek-fans-remain-tunisia-club-chief-demands-their-arrest (accessed 15 December 2015). 25. Eva Bellin, “Reconsidering the Robustness of Authoritarianism in the Middle East: Lessons from the Arab Spring,” Comparative Politics 44(2) (January 2012): 130.

M. DORSEY lump these two terms together. The latter, at minimum, seeks to overthrow the government or the state, often through violent methods. However, many other social movements throughout history have sought to challenge authority through non-violent means. Thus, while all revolutionary movements are social movements, not all social movements are revolutionary. ”11 Individuals may challenge and resist, but they need not be social movement actors. Social movements engage in activities other than protest.

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