Computers and Commerce: A Study of Technology and Management by Arthur L. Norberg

By Arthur L. Norberg

Among 1946 and 1957 computing went from a initial, developmental level to extra frequent use followed through the beginnings of the electronic desktop undefined. in this an important decade, spurred by means of swift technological advances, the computing device firm grew to become a huge phenomenon. In desktops and trade, Arthur Norberg explores the significance of those years within the heritage of computing via targeting technical advancements and enterprise suggestions at vital organisations, either demonstrated in 1946, Engineering learn affiliates (ERA) and Eckert-Mauchly computing device corporation (EMCC), from their early actions via their acquisition through Remington Rand.Both period and EMCC had their roots in global battle II, and in postwar years either enterprises got significant investment from the USA executive. Norberg analyzes the interplay among the 2 businesses and the govt. and examines the impression of this institutional context on technological innovation. He assesses the technical contributions of such key corporation figures as J. Presper Eckert, John Mauchly, Grace Hopper, and William Norris, studying the significance of engineering wisdom in changing theoretical designs into doable machines. Norberg appears to be like at the 2 organizations' operations after 1951 as self reliant subsidiaries of Remington Rand, and records the administration difficulties that all started after Remington Rand merged with Sperry Gyroscope to shape Sperry Rand in 1955.

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Additional resources for Computers and Commerce: A Study of Technology and Management at Eckert-Mauchly Computer Company, Engineering Research Associates, and Remington Rand, 1946-1957 (History of Computing)

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7 The device in operation encrypts the first message with a running key, and starts the key for subsequent messages with the third, fifth, and so forth, key letters. The machine encryption occurs as a result of cascades of transposing rotors that change one letter into another. As the transpositions take place, a long sequence of letter substitutions result with no repetition and no discernible pattern. The first E in a message may become H, with the next X, and the third Q. While seemingly random, the results are not quite so, making messages subject to decryption as long as the key is used.

47 The company was established with Parker as president and director, Engstrom, Meader, and Norris as vice presidents and directors, and Talbott and Richard C. Lilly as outside directors. Lilly was a former partner of Parker’s in at least one venture in Minnesota (Toro Manufacturing), and was president of the First Bank St. Paul, the bank that both NAC and ERA used. The new firm opened an office in Washington to recruit additional employees and solicit business. Among the variety of business activities of ERA, two concerns stand out.

3). Tompkins, son of an army physician, entered the University of Michigan graduate mathematics program, following graduation from the University of Maryland in the early 1930s. He specialized in the calculus of variation. By the end of the 1930s, Tompkins was an instructor at Princeton University. 2 Howard T. Engstrom, vice president, ERA. Courtesy of the Charles Babbage Institute. Naval Reserve, he was called to active duty early in the war and assigned to CSAW, where he became involved with Engstrom.

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