Genes and DNA - A Beginner's Guide to Genetics and Applns by C. Omoto, P. Lurquin

By C. Omoto, P. Lurquin

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1: DNA size markers with the largest DNA pieces towards the top. 2: PCR product. C. The first three cycles of a PCR reaction. The original DNA is shown in dark gray, the primers in black, newly synthesized DNA in light gray. Each step first involves heating to separate the double strands of DNA, then fast-cooling to allow primers to bind, and finally allowing the DNA polymerase to synthesize a new strand of DNA off of the primer. Dotted lines after the product of cycle 1 shows how the product of one cycle provides the template for the next cycle.

Let us designate R as the dominant gene determining red eye color and r as the recessive gene determining white eye color. The white-eyed male would be XrY, with only one copy of the recessive gene, and the redeyed females were XRXR homozygous dominant. During meiosis, the chromosomes segregate and yield gametes that contain one Xr and one Y (for the male), or gametes containing a single XR (for the females). Note that the Y chromosome in this hypothesis carries no R or r. A. That is, if the gene for eye color was on the X chromosome and the white-eye trait was recessive, no offspring would show a white-eye phenotype.

3 shows the simple example of fruit fly with only four pairs of chromosomes. In contrast, humans have twentythree pairs and peas, for example, have seven pairs of chromosomes. The fruit fly has been and is still used extensively in genetic studies. We will see examples of this use in this chapter and later in the book. The Punnett Square Observing the behavior of chromosomes provides a way to explain the results of crossing plants that differ in a single character. 3) the two copies of the chromosomes are segregated into different gametes.

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