Norse and english literature

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The passive upgrade consists of: special cold-bridge free roof truss without vertical enforcements. We urge all copyright owners, to recognize that links contained within this site are located somewhere else on the web. Though some of the most collectible Scandinavian glass comes from the postwar period, most notably the 1950s and 1960s, it was earlier innovations made by designers such as Simon Gate, Edvard Hald, Vicke Lindstrand, and Knut Bergqvist that put northern Europe on the art-glass map.

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Publisher: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (July 16, 2015)

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Dinneen's Irish-English, English-Irish dictionary (2nd ed., Dublin, 1927, p. 709) as "a hamper of 500 fishes."� The lettering on the texts gives the remaining details.� These texts are traced from photographs made at Tule Lake by Wayne and Betty Struble, who detected the ogam and brought the site to Fell�s attention. ������ Third of the sons of Woden, and fourth of the Aesir gods, we may note Thunor ( Thor of the Norsemen).� The form of his name suggests a north German rather than Scandinavian affinity for Woden-lithi's tongue. ������ Thunor was the name by which he was known to the Anglo-Saxons, before the Vikings came to England.� He is accorded much space on Woden-lithi's rock platform [Peterborough, Ontario, Canada], and seems to have been one of the major objects of veneration.� About 24 feet south-southwest of the main sun figure.� He is depicted ( Fig. 119 ) with his sword and hammer, but no text.� He wears a high-peaked conical helmet.� Some 20 feet west of the main sun figure his famous hammer is depicted, together with his personal name, M-O-L-N-R ( Mjolnir ).� In the Bronze Age all famous weapons had personal names, on the model of Siegfried's sword, Volsung.� Images of the short-handled hammer, usually not labeled, are seen all over the site.� About 11 feet southeast of the main sun figure Thunor himself is depicted ( Fig. 120 ), helmetless, arms akimbo, his hammer beside him to the right, and its name, M-L-N-R, inscribed to the left.� In a corrupt spelling M-N-R the hammer appears about 45 feet to the south-southeast of the main sun figure, beside a pair of serpents, and to the right Thunor stands, demonstrating his mighty glove, one of the sources of his power.� As conqueror of the sea giant Ymir (Himir of the Norsemen), he may have been accorded special veneration by Woden-lithi's mariners. ������ He is shown with his high conical helmet and his hammer also in a petroglyph composition ( Fig. 123 ) centered at about 15 feet northeast of the main sun figure.� This shows Thunor at the outset of the final battle of the gods against the forces of the underworld.� The giant serpent-dragon of Middle Earth lies to the right, coiling its body, with a text composed of the dot-letters of the alphabet along its length.� The text that accompanies this composition appears to be a continuation of the text given in Fig. 119, where a dwarf is recorded to have made Molnir for Thunor.� This section reads: which may be interpreted as Nema Thunor molni haka Orma likkja luk la hawa, "Thunor takes up Molni to strike at the Serpent, its body lying coiled in the sea." (In Fig. 123 only the god and his hammer, and the first three words of the text are shown.)� The dragon defeated Thunor in the end, leading to the ascent to Walhol, as recorded later in this section. ������ As we have already seen, the ogam alphabet that for so long has been supposed to be an exclusively Ancient Irish script was in fact well known in Norsemen countries as early as the Bronze Age.� This fact accounts for the otherwise untranslatable ogam inscriptions that occur in the Western Plains and as far west at the valley of the Milk River in Alberta, Canada. ������ Here occur many petroglyphs cut in soft bedrock; they are obviously not more than a few centuries old at most.� One such is shown in Fig. 124, where a supernatural figure is depicted holding aloft what appears to be a rake.� Indeed, the archaeologists who have recorded these and similar inscriptions say just that.� Now it so happens that the Ogam Tract written by the mediaeval Irish monks describes a special kind of ogam called by them ogam reic: literally "rake ogam."� It is not known in Ireland as occurring in petroglyphs, nor indeed anywhere save in the manuscripts written by the monks.� Thus the American petroglyphs are the first examples to be recognized as archaeological artifacts. ������ When Fell was first confronted with these examples he naturally expected the language contained in the ogam script to be people of ancient Ireland and related to Irish Gaelic.� But the decipherment proved baffling, as no Ancient Irish words known to him matched the concatenation of consonants present in the rakes and in the associated finger ogam (also mentioned in the Irish texts). ������ After the presence of Norse inscriptions was made clear by the Peterborough [Ontario, Canada] texts, the solution of the mysterious rake ogam of the Milk River petroglyphs became evident.� The letters are indeed ogam, but the language is Norse, allied to Old Norse <= Saharan ?>.� As can be seen from Fig. 124, the "rake" represents the hammer Mjolnir and the god depicted is Thunor, here rendered as ogam T-N-R. ������ As god of war the deity may be presumed to rule-over the art of using weapons, whether for battle or for hunting.� Fig. 125 is an example of many similar petroglyphs, in this case written in Ancient Irish language, where hunting scenes are portrayed.� it is from Site 77 near Canal Flats in British Columbia, discovered by John Corner.� This is modern work, for the medium in which it is executed is paint, exposed to the atmosphere; another piece of evidence pointing to the long memory of the Amerindians.� The artist was a member of the Takhelne tribe, with a spoken tongue of partly Ancient Irish derivation."� Please also see Figs. 121 & 122. ������ King Woden-lithi seems to have devoted less space on his platform to the Wanir, gods of the earth, than to the other deities.� Under the inscribed word W-R-Y-aR ( Freyar ) he has depicted a phallic god ... [eleven] feet west of the main sun figure.� Beside Freyr is an up-ended ship, one of his symbols by Norse tradition, though the connection with male fertility is not immediately obvious.� The hull of a ship is perhaps here regarded as a phallic symbol. ������ The interesting interconnection between Ancient Irish and Norsemen gods, already noted in Fig. 92, under Lug, is again evident in a petroglyph at Coral Gardens, near Moneta, Wyoming, photographed by Ted Sowers of the Wyoming Archaeological Survey.� The Ancient Irish god Mabona is shown below his symbol, a giant phallus and beneath is written his name, in younger runes.� Again we have evidence of a later contact between the ancient American migrants from Ireland and Norsemen of the period of Leif Eriksson. ������ Much more obvious attention is given to the worship of the power of the phallus as a fertilizer not only of women but of Mother Earth herself, in the shape of the great stone phallic monuments that the Ancient Irish and Norsemen peoples erected in Europe and that their American cousins placed at corresponding suitable sites in the New World.� That these are, in some cases at least, Bronze Age monuments is evidenced by the presence of ogam and consain script, making reference to ancient pagan divinities and rituals.� Figs. 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, & 137 � illustrate typical examples in both Europe and America...."� The inferred fertility rituals are discussed in America BC. [Please also see Figs. 126 & 127 ]. ������ That Mabo was preferred by the youth of America to his Norsemen equivalent Freyar is made clear by the much larger number of inscriptions dedicated to the former, and usually written in Ancient Irish ogam of the type called fringe ogam (.. pdf.

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